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BIBLIOGUÍAS

Revisiones sistemáticas: Formular la pregunta

Guía introductoria sobre qué es una revisión sistemática, los tipos de revisión, las etapas para llevarlas a cabo y otros recursos de utilidad.

La pregunta ha de ser:

  • relevante
  • concisa, clara y enfocada

La parte más crítica de una revisión sistemática (RS) es plantear la pregunta correcta. Aunque la RS  se haya hecho de manera metodológicamente correcta, si la pregunta planteada no es relevante  para para los pacientes o los proveedores, la RS no tendrá utilidad 1.

En la formulación de la pregunta hay que tener en cuenta la perspectiva (individual o poblacional),  el contexto, tipo de pregunta (diagnóstico, pronóstico, eficacia…), formato de pregunta (PICO,  PICOS...) y el diseño del estudio de elección 1

Hay descritas 38 tipos de preguntas estructuradas 2. Las más utilizadas en ciencias de la salud son: PICO, PICOS, SPICE y SPIDER. El uso de estas preguntas ayuda a identificar los términos que hemos de utilizar en la estrategia de búsqueda.

 

Tipos de Preguntas Estructuradas

PREGUNTA ELEMENTOS
3WH Who, What, When, How (study conducted)
BeHEMoTh Behaviour, Health context, Exclusions, Models or Theories
CHIP Context, How (study conducted), Issues, People
CIMO Context, Interventions, Mechanisms, Outcomes
CoCoPop Condition, Context, Population 
CPTM Construct of interest or the name of the measurement instrument(s), Population, Type of measurement instrument, Measurement properties
ECLIPSe Expectations (improvement, innovation or information), Client group (recipients of service), Location (where service is housed), Impact (change in service and how measured), Professionals involved, Service
EPICOT Evidence, Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Timestamp  
MIP Methodology, Issues, Participants
PCC Population, Concept, Context
PECO Patient/Population, Exposure, Comparison, Outcomes
PECODR Population, Exposure, Comparison, Outcome, Duration, Results
PEICO(S) Person, Environment, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, (Stakeholders)
PEO Population and their problems, Exposure, Outcomes or Themes
PESICO Person, Environment, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, (Stakeholders)
PFO Population, Prognostic factors (or models of interest), Outcome
PICO Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes
PICo Population, phenomenon of Interest, Context
PICo Population Intervention or Phenomena of Interest, Context
PICOC Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Context
PICOCPRRST Population or problem, Intervention or exposure, Comparison, Outcome Context or environment or setting, Professionals, Results, Research -incorporating type of question and type of study design, Stakeholder or perspective or potential users, Timeframe or duration
PICOS Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Study Type
PICOT Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Timeframe
PICOT-D Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time, Digital-data
PICOt Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, timing
PICOT Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Timeframe
PICOTS Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Timing, Setting
PICOTT Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Type of question, Type of Study Design
PIE Patient, Intervention/Interest, Evaluation
PIPOH Population (receiving intervention), Intervention, Professionals (delivering intervention), Outcome, Health setting (in which Guideline is to be implemented)
PIPOS Population (receiving intervention), Intervention, Professionals (delivering intervention), Outcome, Setting (in which Guidance is to be implemented)
PIRD Population, Index Test, Reference Test, Diagnosis of Interest
PO Population/Phenomena, Outcome
PS Population Situation
ProPheT Problem, Phenomenon of interest, Timing
SDMO Types of Studies, Types of Data, Types of Methods, Outcomes
SPICE Setting, Perspectuve (Intervention/Interest of Phenomenon), Comparison, Evaluation
SPIDER Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type 

 

 

 

Bibliografía

1. Umscheid CA. A Primer on Performing Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Sep;57(5):725–34. 

2. Booth A, Noyes J, Flemming K, Moore G, Tunçalp Ö, Shakibazadeh E. Formulating questions to explore complex interventions within qualitative evidence synthesis. BMJ Glob Heal. 2019;4(Suppl 1):e001107.

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